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六氟灵科学出版物 (英文)

Title Article information Abstract
Diphotérine® and Hexafluorine®. Principles and indications for use Author(s): L MATHIEU,
Date: 2008
Source: PREVOR Company
Principles of action of both solution Diphotérine® and Hexafluorine® and recommendations for use.
Hexafluorine® – Emergency washing solution for ocular and cutaneous splashes of hydrofluoric acid Author(s): J. Blomet,
Date: 2009
Source: PREVOR
This file presents HF burns process, and its decontamination, focusing on the benefits of using Hexafluorine solution.
Chemical ocular burns: experimental data and clinical implications Author(s): NF. Schrage,
Date: 2011-06
Source: 39TH INTERNATIONAL MEDICHEM
CONGRESS, 2-5 juin 2011, Heldelberg, Allemagne,
The objective of this work was to describe the corneal penetration mechanisms of various chemicals such as hydrofluoric acid on ex vivo EVEIT corneal model and to define the modes of action of various decontamination solutions. OCT makes it possible to visualize in real time the intraocular penetration of hydrofluoric acid and thus to define an intervention time for a complete decontamination of the eye. The Hexafluorine® solution is thus evaluated, showing its benefit for ocular decontamination in cases of hydrofluoric acid splashes. NF. Schrage1 1Dept of Ophthalmology University Aachen and Aachen Center of Technology Transfer in Ophtalmology , Germany
Brûlures à l’acide fluorhydrique (HF) 70%: Décontamination conjointe retardée à l’aide d’amphotère chélateur et de gluconate de calcium – Rapport de cas [Quemaduras con Ácido Fluorhídrico (HF) al 70%: Descontaminación Mixta retrasada con un quelante anfótero e Gluconato de Cálcio – Relato de Caso] Author(s): Alan Hall,
Date: 2011-10
Source: CONGRESO ARGENTINO DE QUEMADURAS
, octobre 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina,
Introduction to a case report where Hexafluorine® solution is used as delayed washing after a cutaneous splashes of 70% hydrofluoric acid on 10% TBSA (Total Body Surface Area). Washing with Hexafluorine® solution allowed a prompt pain relief. Washing, followed by different calcium gluconate applications, in massage, intravenous, intradermal perilesional, helped to avoid any systemic toxicity to develop. More severe injured areas required a skin grafting and healed in 90 days. Carlos Alberto Yoshimura, MD2; Laurence Mathieu, PhD1; Alan Hall,PhD3 1Laboratoire Prevor Laboratory, Valmondois, France; 2Centre des brûlés de Santa Casa de Santos, Brazil ; 3Toxicology Consulting and Medical Translating Services, Inc., Laramie, WY, USA and Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO, USA
Systematic revue – Washing solutions use following hydrofluoric acid and other strong acids and bases acute exposure [Kunskapsöversikt – Spolvätskor för behandling av akut exponering för fluorvätesyra och andra starka syror och baser] Author(s): Gunnar Johanson,
Date: 2010-12
Source: Rapport 2010:6, December 2010,
The Swedish Work Environment Authority has therefore commissioned this independent review of the literature and a compilation of experiences from industrial users. Their conclusions are that Hexafluorine® solution works more effectively than water when the irrigation begins immediately after the splash. Its interest regarding systemic effects if chemical burn has already developed is to be demonstrated. Regarding Diphoterine® solution, experimental studies and case reports support for the positive effects of Diphoterine® solution use for personal decontamination of strong acids and bases. Mattias Öberg, Bengt Sjögren, Anders Boman, Gunnar Johanson Occupational Medicine Institute, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Corrosive chemicals: chemical burns by ingestion, inhalation, cutaneous or ocular splashes [Produits corrosifs : brûlures chimiques par ingestion, inhalation, projection cutanée ou oculaire] Author(s): M. Labadie,
Date: 2009
Source: Urgences toxicologiques de l’adulte
– Guide pratique à l’usage des services
d’urgence et de réanimation, Editions Arnette, 2009, p161-171,
This chapter gives physiopathology as well as emergency services protocols based on thermal burns one (10/15 rules in cases of skin exposure or profuse isotonic solution washing in cases of eye exposure). Specific case of acids with specific toxicity such as hydrofluoric acid is noted. Diphoterine® and Hexafluorine® solutions are cited, with the precision that their efficacy compared to water is not demonstrated yet. V. Danel1, B. Mégarbane², P. Chanseau3, M. Labadie4, 1Hôpital Albert Michallon, Grenoble, France, ²Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France, 3Hôpital Robert-Boulin, Libourne, France, 4Hôpital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, France
Hexafluorine decontamination of 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor facial exposure: Case report Author(s): Alan H. Hall,
Date: 2011-05-30
Source: Journal of Chemical Health
and Safety, Available online 30 May 2011,
Publication on a case report of chemical injury on the right cheek of a worker following exposure to 70% hydrogen fluoride during a valve opening. The immediate pain felt by the victim disappeared during washing with a solution of DAP HEXAFLUORINE®. Only a light painless erythema developed, justifying the application of calcium gluconate on the following day but did not require a work loss. Cyrille-Lazare Siéwé3, Jean-Marc Barbe4, Laurence Mathieu1, Joël Blomet1, Alan H. Hall2. 1Laboratoire Prevor Laboratory, Valmondois, France; 2Toxicology Consulting and Medical Translating Services, Inc., Laramie, WY, USA and Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO, USA; 3 affilié avec le Laboratoire Prevor, Valmondois, France et son affiliation actuelle est Programme des Nation Unies pour l’Environnement (PNUE), Division Technologie, Industrie et Economie (DTIE), Direction des produits chimiques, Genève, Suisse 4Cristalleries d’Arques, Arques, France
Seventy per cent hydrofluoric acid burns: delayed decontamination with hexafluorine® and treatment with calcium gluconate. Author(s): De Almeida DM,
Date: 2011 Jul-Aug
Source: J Burn Care Res. 2011 Jul-Aug;32(4):e149-54.,
Presentation of a case report on the decontamination and therapeutic treatment done on chemical skin lesions following 70% hydrofluoric acid splash. After an initial washing with water followed by application of magnesium oxide, painful lesions were again washed with the solution of HEXAFLUORINE® (DAP 5l) followed by calcium gluconate in topical application and intravenous, subcutaneous and perilesional injection. This treatment was associated with a decrease in pain very quickly after washing. Skin grafting on the most affected areas was required. No significant systemic toxicity developed, although such exposure could have been fatal. Yoshimura CA1, Mathieu L2, Hall AH3,4, Monteiro MG5, De Almeida DM. 1Centre des brûlés de Santa Casa de Santos, Brazil ; 2Laboratoire Prevor, Valmondois, France; 3Toxicology Consulting and Medical Translating Services, Inc., Laramie, WY, USA and Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Colorado school of public health, Denver; 5Globaltek, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
Hexafluorine® card [Fiche Hexafluorine®] Intoxication with Hydrofluoric acid card [Fiche Intoxication par l’acide fluorhydrique] Author(s): Hachelaf M,
Date: 2011-09
Source: Les Intoxications – Prise en charge initiale,
3ème édition, Urgence Pratique Publications, septembre 2011, p28 et 93,
Hexafluorine® solution is introduced as a possible decontamination solution for hydrofluoric acid splashes on mucosa and skin. Mégarbane B1, Fortin JL², Hachelaf M² 1Réanimation médicale et toxicologique, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France ²Service des Urgences, Hôpital Universitaire, Besançon, France
Chemical injury and thermal eye burns. Conservative and surgical options of a stage-dependent therapy [Verätzungen und Verbrennungen des Auges – Konservative und chirurgische Optionen einer stadiengerechten Therapie] Author(s): Schrage NF,
Date: 2011-10
Source: Ophthalmologe. October 2011;108(10):921-928.,
The basic principles of first aid for chemical and thermal burns are discussed. The primary goal of all measurements is the prevention or limitation of injury spreading. In cases of chemical injuries, experimental data confirms the interest of washing with hyperosmolar and amphoteric solutions. In cases of hydrofluoric acid splashes, Hexafluorine® solution’s washing is recommended, with per orbital calcium gluconate’s use if necessary. The further therapeutic care is focused on the modulation of the inflammatory response, the prevention of bacterial infection and secondary glaucoma, and the stimulation of wound healing. Regime therapies should be standardized and scientifically valid. Struck HG 1, Schrage NF 2 1Ophtalmology department of Halle / Saale University; 2Ophtalmology department, Aachen University, Aachen Center of Technology Transfer in Ophtalmology, Germany
Recommendations for acute treatment for chemical and thermal burn injuries of eyes and lids. [Empfehlungen zur Akutbehandlung von Verätzungen und Verbrennungen der Augen und Lider] Author(s): Gérard M,
Date: 2011-10
Source: Ophthalmologe. 2011 Oct;108(10):916-20.,
Recommendations for the management of chemical and thermal burn injuries, based on experimentations and clinical experience of eyes cases effectively treated. Specific case of hydrofluoric acid injuries is discussed. Based on experimentation, decontamination with Hexafluorine® solution is recommended. Schrage NF1, Struck HG2, Gérard M3. 1Département ophtalmologie, université Aix la Chapelle, Aachen Center of Technology Transfer in Ophtalmology, Allemagne ; 2Département d’ophtalmologie de l’Université de Halle / Saale; 3Service Ophtalmologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fort de France, Cayenne
Part 2. Comparison of emergency washing solutions in 70% hydrofluoric acid-burned human skin in an established ex vivo explants model Author(s): François Burgher1, Laurence Mathieu1, Elian Lati2, Philippe Gasser2, Laurent Peno-Mazzarino2, Joël Blomet1, Alan H. Hall3, Howard I. Maibach4 1Laboratoire Prevor Laboratory, Valmondois, France; 2BIO-EC Laboratory, Longjumeau, France; 3Toxicology Consulting,
Date: 2010
Source: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, 2010, 1-8 e-pub,
This publication describes a comparative study between 2 protocols on human skin explants: Hexafluorine® washing during 10 minutes versus tap water washing during 15 minutes followed by a single calcium gluconate application. In these experimental conditions, tap water washing followed by gel calcium gluconate application only delays lesion apparition and then more severe injuries appear, after 4 hours. In contrast, no histological observable lesion develops after Hexafluorine® washing. Thus Hexafluorine® appears as an interesting cutaneous decontamination solution to prevent and to minimize local and systemic consequences due to a HF cutaneous splash.
Part 1. Experimental 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns: Histological observations in an established human skin explants ex vivo model Author(s): François Burgher, Laurence Mathieu, Elian Lati, Philippe Gasser, Laurent Peno-Mazzarino, Joël Blomet, Alan H. Hall, Howard I. Maibach
Date: 2010
Source: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, 2010, 1-8 e-pub,
This publication describes 70% hydrofluoric acid effects on skin, using a human explants model. 70% HF diffusion through the epidermis begins within the first contact minutes. In the papillary dermis, first injuries occur after only 4 minutes, and then rapidly in the reticular dermis. Finally, 70% HF only needs 5 minutes of cutaneous contact to go through all the human explants skin layers. The issue of decontamination of such projections is important and time of intervention should be as small as possible.
Analysis of hydrofluoric acid penetration and decontamination of the eye by means of time-resolved optical coherence tomography Author(s): Felix Spöler, Markus Frentz, Michael Först, Heinrich Kurz, Norbert F. Schrage
Date: 2008
Source: Burns 2008 Jun;34(4):549-55,
This study makes it possible for the first time to define the speed of penetration and the effects of chemical decontamination of biological tissues following an ocular chemical splash. Indeed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT-HR) makes it possible to follow chronologically the micro structural changes which have occurred on ex vivo rabbit corneas exposed to a 2.5% HF solution. The effectiveness of various washing solutions on HF splashes is also compared. With tap water or with a 1% calcium gluconate solution, the deep corneal stroma remains clear at the end of washing but becomes opaque thereafter. With Hexafluorine®, the cornea remains clear even 1 hour after washing has ended: this solution thus makes it possible to carry out effective washing of HF splashes.
Comparative evaluation off the active eye and skin chemical splash decontamination solutions Diphotérine® and Hexafluorine® with water and other rinsing solutions: Effects on burn severity and healing Author(s): Mathieu L, Burgher F, Blomet J
Date: 2007
Source: Journal of Chemical Health And Safety, 2007,14, N°4, 32-39
This publication revisits the characteristics of burns due to hydrofluoric acid derivatives and also presents the various first aid protocols to be carried out. Various case reports and case series initially washed with Hexafluorine® are presented. Hexafluorine® is shown to be an effective washing solution of HF chemical splashes due to HF by averting burns or systemic effects where such types of splashes could have involved a lethal risk (5 cases).
Critical care management of major hydrofluoric acid burns : a case report, review of the literature, and recommendations for therapy Author(s): Dunser MW, Ohlbauer M, Rieder J et al.
Date: 2004
Source: Burns 2004, 30, 391-398,
This paper focuses on the need for a specific care management protocol for major hydrofluoric acid burns. Among the review of available treatments of hydrofluoric acid burns, Hexafluorine® is cited as an effective emergency rinsing solution for HF splashes on eyes and skin.
Hexafluorine®: An Improved Method for Emergency Decontamination of Ocular and Dermal Hydrofluoric Acid Splashes Author(s): Söderberg K, Kuusinen P, Mathieu L, Hall AH
Date: 2004
Source:
Hexafluorineâ was established in a Swedish company specialised in metallurgy as a replacement of the classic rinsing with water which did not show an optimum efficacy, especially in the case of one splash with 70% hydrofluoric acid. This case is described in this publication. Then, the company collected the results of rinsing with Hexafluorineâ in order to validate its installation definitively. Between 1998 and 1999, there were 16 cases of eye and skin splashes with hydrofluoric acid (70% alone or in a mix containing nitric acid for the welding operations). These splashes were rinsed successfully with Hexafluorineâ, permitting to decrease pain from the very beginning of the rinsing and entailing only a small amount of secondary care (75% of the cases did not require any secondary care) and days lost from work (average < 1 day, standard deviation s = 1.1).
Letter to the editor Author(s): Hall AH, Blomet J, Mathieu L
Date: 2003
Source: Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology, 2003, 41, N°7, 1031-1032,
This answer draws the attention of the reader to the experimental procedure used by Höjer et al. It concerns an extremely severe burn with a contact time of 3 min followed by a 30-second delay to decontamination. This does not correspond to the protocol recommended by PREVOR for the use of Hexafluorine®: use within the minute following the splash. 3 minutes of contact is not representative of contact duration of 50% HF in a workplace environment, which would be extremely painful for the victim. Moreover, this study is based on only 2 significant points of comparison and a non significant end result at the end of 5 days of experimentation. This information does not allow a conclusion to be made concerning the superiority of one of the washing methods since the burn model is severe and because of this requires secondary medical care. In the event of delayed washing of a burn, PREVOR also recommends the use of an antidote such as gluconate gel. On the whole, it is in fact more a question of one study on burn treatment than a comparison of decontamination methods. It would thus have been, from this perspective, interesting to compare the water decontamination plus antidote (2. 5% calcium gluconate gel) protocol to the Hexafluorine® plus antidote protocol.
Hexafluorine® for emergency decontamination of hydrofluoric acid eye/skin splashes Author(s): Hall AH, et al.
Date: 2000
Source: SSA Journal (Semiconductor Safety Association Journal) 2000, 14, Summer, 30-33,
In this publication, 5 cases of eye and skin splashes due to hydrofluoric acid (HF) were effectively rinsed with Hexafluorine® as first aid solution. A worker that had fallen into a bath containing a mix of hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, presented an important eye burn after a rinsing with water when on his body, rinsed with Hexafluorine®, only minor burns appeared on the abdomen. In these 5 cases, including an eye burn due to 38% HF, no after-effects appeared after the rinsing with Hexafluorine®, there were no losses of work.
“The use of hydrofluoric acid in chemistry laboratories” [Utilisation de l’acide fluorhydrique dans les laboratoires de chimie] Author(s): Peletier A
Date: 2000
Source: Cahier de Notes documentaires – Hygiène et Sécurité du Travail 2000, 178, 37-41,
“The use of hydrofluoric acid in chemistry laboratories” [Utilisation de l’acide fluorhydrique dans les laboratoires de chimie]
“The use of hydrofluoric acid in chemistry laboratories” [Utilisation de l’acide fluorhydrique dans les laboratoires de chimie] Author(s): Peletier
Date: 2000
Source: Cahier de Notes documentaires – Hygiène et Sécurité du Travail 2000, 178, 37-41,
“The use of hydrofluoric acid in chemistry laboratories” [Utilisation de l’acide fluorhydrique dans les laboratoires de chimie]
First aid for a unique acid: HF Author(s): EB Segal
Date: 2000
Source: Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society 2000, 18-23,
This article presents the whole of classic protocols for the rinsing of hydrofluoric acid splashes: water + calcium gluconate, benzalkonium chloride. For the first time in an American journal, the properties as well as the cases in which Hexafluorine® was successfully used to decontaminate industrial splashes, communicated in a congress by Dr. AH Hall, are presented in detail. In conclusion, the author advises to be vigilant concerning new rinsing protocols and not to be satisfied using only classic decontamination methods.
Hexafluorine®: First aid washing solution in cases of eye or skin splashes due to hydrofluoric acid Author(s): F. Burgher, L. Mathieu, J. Blomet
Date: November 2009
Source: Prevor
This file is a compilation of all data, published or not published, on Hexafluorine®: toxicological data, comparative studies about the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, as well as all the cases of eye or skin splashes due to pure or mixed hydrofluoric acid, that have happened in industry and were first rinsed with Hexafluorine®.
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burn injuries decontamination in ex vivo eye and human skin models Author(s): Mathieu L., Lati E., Burgher F., Fosse C., Gasser P, Hall AH, Peno-Mazzarino L., Schrage N.F.
Date: 2010
Source: IUTOX, Barcelona, Spain, July 2010,
This poster introduces to the comparative ex vivo study of HF splash decontamination (tap water and/or calcium gluconate versus Hexafluorine®) of skin/eye. Hexafluorine® helps maintaining body tissues. A water washing of 15 minutes, followed by a single application of calcium gluconate is not enough to achieve effective skin decontamination.
Hydrofluoric acid Burns: Effects on Burn Severity and Healing Author(s): C. Fosse, L. Mathieu, F. Spöler, C. Yoshimura, AH. Hall
Date: 2010
Source: NBM (Nordisk Burn Meeting), Bergen, Norway, April 2010,
Hydrofluoric acid Burns: Effects on Burn Severity and Healing Author(s): C. Fosse, L. Mathieu, F. Spöler, C. Yoshimura, AH. Hall
Date: 2010
Source: SFETB (French Burn Center Society), Lyon, France, June 2010,
Key Parameters of Hydrofluoric Acid Skin Contamination and First Aid Measures: Human Occupational Accidents and Experimental Data Author(s): Burgher F, Mathieu L, Lati E, Gasser P, Peno-Mazzarino, Yoshimura CA, Hall AH, Maibach HI,
Date: 2010
Source: MEDICHEM, Taiwan, China, 2010, 21-24 April 2010,
These posters are reviews of current in vivo, ex vivo and clinical studies on hexafluorine® efficacy when used for chemical splash decontamination. In vitro, Hexafluorine® versus tap water helps to obtain a more rapid return to a pH physiologically acceptable. In vivo experiments were conducted with 20s application of 70% HF in rats. Hexafluorine® washing bring better results than tap water and calcium gluconate groups. Rabbit ex vivo studies showed no burn injury after Hexafluorine® washing compared tap water and to 1% calcium gluconate. Also ex vivo, Hexafluorine® washing versus tap water washing followed by a single calcium gluconate application prevented severe lesions appearance on human skin explants exposed to 70% HF. 32 industrial Hexafluorine® cases have also been reported, with no sequelae or no lost work day. Currently, a 10% TBSA case splashed with 70% HF was also reported. The delayed use of Hexafluorine®, 3 hours after an initial tap water rinsing followed by magnesium oxide application helped, associated with calcium gluconate application, to decrease pain and to facilitate followed treatments. Compared to tap water washing, studies on chemical splashes decontamination with Hexafluorine® showed its effectiveness in both cases of immediate or delayed uses.
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns: a new efficacious model with ex vivo Bio-EC Author(s): Mathieu L.; Burgher, F.; Fosse, C.; Lati, E.; Hall, A. H.; Maibach, H. I.
Date: 2010
Source: SOT, 7-11 March 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA,
Presentation of the human skin explants model exposed to 70% hydrofluoric acid during different times. This model helped to follow acid penetration through the 4 skin layers (stratum corneum, basal epidermis, papillar and reticular dermis). First alterations are observed in 1 minute in the superior part of the epidermis. Basal epidermis layer is reached in 2 minutes. After 3 minutes, epidermis is completely damaged and first lesions appear in the papillary dermis. In 5 minutes, alterations have slightly damaged the reticular dermis. Injuries continue up to 24 hours, experiment’s end, and the epidermis is completely necrosed.
70 % Hydrofluoric acid (HF) cutaneous decontamination: comparison of different washing protocols with a new type of ex vivo data Author(s): Burgher F, Mathieu L, Fosse C, Lati E, Hall AH, Maibach H
Date: 2010
Source: SOT, 7-11 March 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA,
Results of a comparative study on different hydrofluoric acid cutaneous splashes washing protocols on human skin explants model (96 explants) are presented: 10 minutes Hexafluorine® washing is compared with no washing (control group), and to a tap water washing followed by a single calcium gluconate application group. Without decontamination, the 4 skin layers are rapidly contaminated in the first 10 minutes. With tap water washing followed by a single topic application of calcium gluconate, the 4 skin layers alterations are delayed (after 4 hours). With Hexafluorine® washing, no alteration is observed (up to 24 hours of observation). The interest of Hexafluorine® washing is thus confirmed by this study.
EAPCCT 2009 posters Author(s): Alan Hall
Date: 2009
Source: 8th Annual ACMT Spring Conference March 12-14, 2010; Scottsdale, Arizona, USA,
EAPCCT 2009 posters were presented.
Comparative Experimental Decontamination of Concentrated Hydrofluoric Acid in New Ex Vivo Human Eye and Skin Models Author(s): Mathieu L, Lati E, Burgher F, Fosse C, Gasser P, Hall AH, Peno-Mazzarino L, Maibach HI, Schrage NF
Date: 2009
Source: AIOH, Canberra, Australia, December 2009,
This presentation reviews the knowledge acquired on HF burns, concerning the eyes (with model EVEIT), as well as the skin (with the explant model of human skin at BIO-EC laboratory). HF 2.5% reached the epithelium in 4 minutes. The skin is reached within the 1st minute with HF 70% on the human explant model, and the dermis is completely penetrated in 5 minutes. The comparative studies of decontamination undertaken on these models show the advantage of the use of Hexafluorine® which preserves tissue, compared to water and/or gluconate of calcium.
[Descontaminación química activa con Diphoterine® y Hexafluorine®: Actualización sobre el ojo y la piel] Author(s): L. Mathieu, A. Duval, AH. Hall, J. Blomet
Date: 2009
Source: SEMES (Emergency medicine congress), Benidorm, Spain, June 2009,
This poster presents the latest results on the harmlessness of Hexafluorine® and the results of ex vivo studies, both ocular (EVEIT) and cutaneous (human skin explant model of). The models washed with Hexafluorine® remained unaltered.
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns: A new efficacious model with ex vivo BIO-EC human skin explants Author(s): Burgher F., Mathieu L., Fosse C., Lati E., Hall AH, Maibach HI.
Date: 2009
Source: EAPCCT, Stockholm, Sweden, May 2009,
This model presents the kinetics of tissue deterioration following contact with HF 70% on a human skin explant model. The observations obtained correspond exactly with the clinical observations.
70 % Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) cutaneous decontamination – Comparison of different washing protocols with a new type of ex vivo data Author(s): Burgher F, Mathieu L, Fosse C, Lati E, Hall AH, Maibach H
Date: 2009
Source: EAPCCT, Stockholm, Sweden, May 2009,
In this poster, the comparison of 3 decontamination methods (no washing, washing with water followed by application of calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) is presented. The results confirm the results of case reports: One application of calcium gluconate alone is not sufficient to limit the extent of the lesions and should be renewed in less than 4 hours. Hexafluorine® seems an effective solution of decontamination.
Hydrofluoric acid (HF): hazards, review of case reports, objective comparison of different washing solutions thanks two new models for eye (EVEIT and OCT) and human skin (BIO-EC) decontamination Author(s): Burgher F., Mathieu L., Blomet J., Finck A., Schrage N.F., Lati E.
Date: 2009
Source: ICOH, Capretown,South Africa, March 2009,
This poster presents the ex vivo comparative studies of decontamination methods of HF splashes (calcium water and/or gluconate with Hexafluorine®). Washing with Hexafluorine® makes it possible to preserve tissues. One application of calcium gluconate alone is not enough to sufficiently decontaminate. These results are correlated with case reports.
Evaluation of Lesions Caused by Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) on Human Skin ex vivo and Decontamination With Tap Water + Calcium Gluconate or Hexafluorine® Author(s): Mathieu L, Lati E, Burgher F, Gasser P, Hall AH, Peno-Mazzarino L, Maibach HI, Blomet J
Date: 2008
Source: Medichem 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, September 2008,
Presentation of a new explant model of human skin to reproduce the behaviour of the skin concerning a burn with concentrated hydrofluoric acid (70%) and comparison of the influence of different washing methods (15 minutes with water followed by the application of 2,5% calcium gluconate of (1 g/cm ²) or 10 minutes of washing with Hexafluorine®). Compared with untreated explants, the explants exposed during 20s to 30 µl of 70% HF show deterioration of the skin’s outer layer as of the 1st minute and an attack of the dermis as of the 5th minute. The comparison of the washing methods shows that washing with water followed by only one application of calcium gluconate delays deterioration of the skin but is not sufficient to prevent them. 10 minutes of washing with Hexafluorine® make it possible to preserve the cells of the skin’s outer layer as well as the dermis, even 24 hours after exposure to 70% HF.
Comparative experimental decontamination of concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF) in an ex vivo human skin model Author(s): Mathieu L, Lati E, Burgher F, Gasser P, Hall AH, Peno-Mazzarino L, Maibach HI, Blomet J
Date: 2008
Source: ISBI, Montreal, Canada September 2008,
Presentation of a new explant model of human skin to reproduce the behaviour of the skin concerning a burn with concentrated hydrofluoric acid (70%) and comparison of the influence of different washing methods (15 minutes with water followed by the application of 2,5% calcium gluconate of (1 g/cm ²) or 10 minutes of washing with Hexafluorine®). Compared with untreated explants, the explants exposed during 20s to 30 µl of 70% HF show deterioration of the skin’s outer layer as of the 1st minute and an attack of the dermis as of the 5th minute. The comparison of the washing methods shows that washing with water followed by only one application of calcium gluconate delays deterioration of the skin but is not sufficient to prevent them. 10 minutes of washing with Hexafluorine® make it possible to preserve the cells of the skin’s outer layer as well as the dermis, even 24 hours after exposure to 70% HF.
Decontamination characteristics of ocular hydrofluoric acid burn with water, 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine® (Anti-HF®) by OCT examination Author(s): Schrage N , Frentz M, Spöler F, Forst M, Kurz M
Date: 2008
Source: WOC, Hong Kong, June 2008,
With this poster, the authors chose to focus their attention on HF burns and washing solutions ability or inability to prevent the complexation of fluoride ions with calcium and magnesium ions. Initially, the penetration of the concentrated HF (48%) in the cornea, modelled with EVEIT, is followed by EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The presence of fluorine in the liquid of the anterior chamber is very rapid and results in a major reduction in the sodium content. Then, also on EVEIT, the influence of various washing solutions (tap water, solution of 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) is compared and observed by OCT. Hexafluorine® makes it possible to preserve a clear cornea, even an hour after the washing ends, whereas the corneas washed with water or gluconate of calcium present calcifications (formation of CaF2). An in vitro experiment also highlights the chelation of fluorine by Hexafluorine®, thus preventing the formation of CaF2 precipitate.
Decontamination characteristics of ocular hydrofluoric acid burn with water, 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine® (Anti-HF®) by OCT examination Author(s): Schrage N , Frentz M, Spöler F, Forst M, Kurz M
Date: 2008
Source: EAPCCT, Seville, Spain, May 2008,
With this poster, the authors chose to focus their attention on HF burns and washing solutions ability or inability to prevent the complexation of fluoride ions with calcium and magnesium ions. Initially, the penetration of the concentrated HF (48%) in the cornea, modelled with EVEIT, is followed by EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The presence of fluorine in the liquid of the anterior chamber is very rapid and results in a major reduction in the sodium content. Then, also on EVEIT, the influence of various washing solutions (tap water, solution of 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) is compared and observed by OCT. Hexafluorine® makes it possible to preserve a clear cornea, even an hour after the washing ends, whereas the corneas washed with water or gluconate of calcium present calcifications (formation of CaF2). An in vitro experiment also highlights the chelation of fluorine by Hexafluorine®, thus preventing the formation of CaF2 precipitate.
HF burns: How to avoid them? Hexafluorine® decontamination Author(s): Mathieu L, Fosse C, Burgher F, Hall AH
Date: 2008
Source: British Burns Association Annual Meeting, Bristol, UK, April 2008,
Literature review of HF burns and their decontamination. Presentation of in vitro and ex vivo data, presenting results similar to different case reports resulting from cases of accidental industrial exposure. Hexafluorine® appears to be an effective first aid decontamination solution for both ocular as well as cutaneous chemical splashes.
HF burns (Clinical results of decontamination and experimental data on living animals) Author(s): Hall AH, Mathieu L
Date: 2007
Source: 1st International Congress On Burns, Eye and Skin Irritation and Decontamination, Cologne, Germany, October 2007,
This presentation gives the characteristics of burns due to hydrofluoric acid derivatives and describes the development of patient management protocols. The improvement of the treatment for cutaneous burns, water + (2,5%) calcium Gluconate administered first in gel form then intravenously, makes it possible to save people burned on 30% of their body surface but still suffer from deep burns and require surgery. Hexafluorine®, presented as another method of washing, amphoteric, chelating and hypertonic, was tested in vivo and 32 clinical cases or series of case are reported. The clinical results obtained, namely the absence of burn or any systemic effects, including with concentrations of 40% or 70% HF, normally involving a lethal risk, are reported. These positive tests agreement or oppose certain in vivo studies showing the limits of certain in vivo models and the need to find new ones.
Dynamic analysis of hydrofluoric acid penetration and decontamination on the eye by means of optical coherence tomography Author(s): Schrage NS, Frentz M, Spöler F, Först M, Kurz H
Date: 2007
Source: EAPCCT XXVII International Congress, May 2007, Athens, Greece,
These posters present a preview of the images of the penetration of hydrofluoric acid in the cornea, thanks to the technique of OCT-HR (High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography), coupled with the animal model ex vivo EVEIT. The direct access to the diffusion process during exposure (by way of the OCT measurements), makes it possible to give exact definitions of the possible damage during the various stages of the corneal penetration of HF. These new methods also made it possible to compare the effectiveness of various washing solutions (water, 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) by characterizing their impact on the penetration. The results obtained make it possible to show the advantages of a decontamination solution such as Hexafluorine when used immediately, by highlighting the advantages of hyperosmolarity and the joint action on the ions H+ and F, which enabled the cornea to remain transparent 1 hour after washing has ended.
Dynamic analysis of hydrofluoric acid penetration and decontamination on the eye by means of optical coherence tomography Author(s): Schrage NS, Frentz M, Spöler F, Först M, Kurz H
Date: 2007
Source: 113th Congress of the SFO, May 2007, Paris, France,
These posters present a preview of the images of the penetration of hydrofluoric acid in the cornea, thanks to the technique of OCT-HR (High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography), coupled with the animal model ex vivo EVEIT. The direct access to the diffusion process during exposure (by way of the OCT measurements), makes it possible to give exact definitions of the possible damage during the various stages of the corneal penetration of HF. These new methods also made it possible to compare the effectiveness of various washing solutions (water, 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) by characterizing their impact on the penetration. The results obtained make it possible to show the advantages of a decontamination solution such as Hexafluorine when used immediately, by highlighting the advantages of hyperosmolarity and the joint action on the ions H+ and F, which enabled the cornea to remain transparent 1 hour after washing has ended.
Dynamic analysis of hydrofluoric acid penetration and decontamination on the eye by means of optical coherence tomography Author(s): Schrage NS, Frentz M, Spöler F, Först M, Kurz H
Date: 2007
Source: ARVO (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology) Annual Meeting 2007, May 2007, Fort Lauderdale, the USA,
These posters present a preview of the images of the penetration of hydrofluoric acid in the cornea, thanks to the technique of OCT-HR (High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography), coupled with the animal model ex vivo EVEIT. The direct access to the diffusion process during exposure (by way of the OCT measurements), makes it possible to give exact definitions of the possible damage during the various stages of the corneal penetration of HF. These new methods also made it possible to compare the effectiveness of various washing solutions (water, 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) by characterizing their impact on the penetration. The results obtained make it possible to show the advantages of a decontamination solution such as Hexafluorine when used immediately, by highlighting the advantages of hyperosmolarity and the joint action on the ions H+ and F, which enabled the cornea to remain transparent 1 hour after washing has ended.
Dynamic analysis of hydrofluoric acid penetration on the eye by means of OCT Author(s): Frentz, M.; Schrage, N.; Spöler, F.; Först, M.; Kurz, H.
Date: 2007
Source: AAO/SOE Congress 2007, Vienna, Austria, June 2007,
These posters present a preview of the images of the penetration of hydrofluoric acid in the cornea, thanks to the technique of OCT-HR (High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography), coupled with the animal model ex vivo EVEIT. The direct access to the diffusion process during exposure (by way of the OCT measurements), makes it possible to give exact definitions of the possible damage during the various stages of the corneal penetration of HF. These new methods also made it possible to compare the effectiveness of various washing solutions (water, 1% calcium gluconate and Hexafluorine®) by characterizing their impact on the penetration. The results obtained make it possible to show the advantages of a decontamination solution such as Hexafluorine when used immediately, by highlighting the advantages of hyperosmolarity and the joint action on the ions H+ and F, which enabled the cornea to remain transparent 1 hour after washing has ended.
Decontamination of hydrofluoric acid (HF) splashes Author(s): Mathieu L
Date: 2005
Source: Occupational Health Conference, Royal College of Nursing, November 2005, Harrogate, Great Britain,
The themes of this presentation are the mechanism of HF burns, a review of how accidents should be handled and feedback from Hexafluorine® use in the workplace.
Eye and skin hydrofluoric acid splashes: 32 cases rinsed with Hexafluorine® Author(s): Mathieu L, Nehles J, Barbe JM, Petri Kuusinen
Date: 2005
Source: SOT Congress, March 2005, New Orleans, United States,
Hexafluorine® is a first aid rinsing solution for eye and skin splashes due to hydrofluoric acid. It can, thanks to its chelating and hypertonic properties, stop simultaneously the acidity and the toxic acid of fluoride ions and avoid their penetration.
Evaluation of burns and decontamination mechanisms Author(s): Mathieu L, Frentz M, Godard C, Coudouel H, Schrage N
Date: 2004
Source: ICT Congress, July 2004, Tampere, Finland,
The aim of this study is to demonstrate by in vitro experiments the theoretical model of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burning and to evaluate the interest of a first aid decontamination with an active rinsing solution, such as Hexafluorine®. An in vitro model of penetration through a semi-permeable membrane and a model of decontamination has been conceived. A fibroblast cell culture was exposed also to an HF solution and to an hypoosmolar or hyperosmolar solution to show the interest of an hypertonic rinsing. Fibroblast culture exposed to water showed an increase of the volume of some cells until explosion. With an hypertonic rinsing, no damage was observed. The penetration of HF in the in vitro model was quicker for high concentration and the membrane resisted to HF aggressiveness. In the of decontamination model, Hexafluorine® rinsing permitted a quick increase of internal pH and pF to physiological values compared to water rinsing. The in vitro experiments showed the importance of using an active rinsing solution such as Hexafluorine® compared to water rinsing against ocular hydrofluoric acid splashes. These results confirm the efficacy of Hexafluorine® already shown by a first aid use in industries.
Skin Decontamination of 49% and 60% Hydrofluoric Acid: Relation Between Burn Model and Decontamination in an Immature Domestic Pig Author(s): Rusch G, Mathieu L, Hall AH, MacKinnon M, Padgett E
Date: 2004
Source: EAPCCT XXIV International Congress, May 2004, Strasbourg, France
Aim of this study: Comparing the effects of no decontamination, water decontamination and Hexafluorine® decontamination following 49% and 60% HF skin exposure in an immature domestic pig model. Results: This model appears not to be reproducible and gives inconsistent results on whether Hexafluorine® is more effective than water for decontamination of 49% and 60% HF exposures. Both Hexafluorine® and water were clearly more effective than no decontamination with 49% and 60% HF. There was some evidence that Hexafluorine® was more effective than water with 49% HF. No effectiveness of either Hexafluorine® or water for 70% HF exposure was shown in this model. This is in distinct contrast with the occupational experience with human 70% HF exposure.
Hexafluorine® skin decontamination of 49% hydrofluoric acid: preliminary study in an immature domestic pig Author(s): Dunn B, Mathieu L, Hall A, MacKinnon M, Padgett E
Date: 2003
Source: EAPCCT XXIII International Congress, May 2003, Rome, Italy
Aim of this study: To determine a 49% hydrofluoric acid skin exposure period that will allow sufficient time before a visible skin lesion develops. Results: These first results have shown that following a 10 seconds skin exposure to 49% HF and additional 30 seconds delay, the degree of the burns decontaminated with Hexafluorine® were less severe than those decontaminated with water. This preliminary study shows that the length of intervention time and the chemical activity of Hexafluorine® plays a very important role in comparison to water. Once the model is completely qualified, a definitive study will be performed to assess efficacy of Hexafluorine® versus tap water using different HF concentrations and exposure times.
Eye and skin hydrofluoric acid splashes: 32 cases rinsed with Hexafluorine® Author(s): Mathieu L, Nehles J, Barbe JM, Kuusinen P
Date: 2003
Source: AISS Congress (Association Internationale de la Sécurité Sociale), Research Committee, May 2003, Athens, Greece
Method: To review cases of skin or eye splashes due to hydrofluoric acid that happened in industry. Results: 5 cases of splashes or immersions in a bath, with concentrations raging from 5 to 70% in different companies are reported. Two series of cases were also taken into account: 1) 11 cases of splashes happened in a German metallurgy factory between 1994 and 1998 2) In a Swedish factory, from 1998 to 1999, 16 cases of skin and eye splashes happened, including 2 cases of skin splashes (forearm, oral cavity) with 70% hydrofluoric acid. These 32 cases of hydrofluoric acid splashes were rinsed with Hexafluorine®. No serious burns appeared. Neither intensive nor prolonged care were necessary. The majority of the cases did not entail any loss of work.
Hexafluorine® decontamination of HF eye/skin splashes: A review Author(s): Hall AH, Nehles J, Södeberg K, Mathieu L
Date: 2002
Source: EAPCCT XXII International Congress, May 2002, Lisbon, Portugal,
The weight of the data presented suggests that a first aid decontamination of eye or skin splashes due to hydrofluoric acid with Hexafluorine® is more effective than water in stopping or decreasing the severity of hydrofluoric acid burns. Calcium gluconate should be used systematically for treatment of HF burns when they develop.
Eye and skin splashes due to hydrofluoric acid: 32 cases rinsed with Hexafluorine® [Projections oculaires et cutanées d’acide fluorhydrique : A propos de 32 cas lavés avec l’Hexafluorine®] Author(s): Mathieu L, Hall AH, Nehles J, Barbe JM, Blomet J
Date: 2001
Source: SFUM Congress (Société Francophone des Urgences Médicales), STC Conference (Société de Toxicologie Clinique), April 2001, Paris, France
In 32 cases of splashes due to hydrofluoric acid, first aid rinsing with Hexafluorine® prevented the appearance of a hydrofluoric acid burn or seriously decreased its gravity.
Efficacy of Hexafluorine® Decontamination in Treating Hydrofluoric Acid Burns Author(s): AH Hall
Date: 2001
Source: Chemical Health and Safety Section of the American Chemical Society 221st Annual Meeting, Avril 2001, San Diego, United States
Skin splashes due to a quantity of 50% or more concentrated hydrofluoric acid induce an immediate pain sensation, and a quick destruction of the tissues. Facial splashes are particularly dangerous. A decontamination with water followed or not by an application of calcium gluconate did not always stop the appearance of after-effects or even death. The use of Hexafluorineâ stops the appearance of the burns typically described in the literature because of its specific physical and chemical properties.
Effective emergency first aid decontamination of major hydrofluoric acid exposures with Hexafluorine® Author(s): Mathieu L, Health and Safety Department, Barbe JM, Blomet J
Date: 2000
Source: Eurotox 2000, XXXVIII European Congress of Toxicology, September 2000, London, Great Britain Reference : Mathieu L et al. Toxicology Letters 2000, Suplement 1/116, p.86,
The results of the efficacy of rinsing with Hexafluorine® on 17 cases of eye and skin splashes due to hydrofluoric acid are presented in this poster: 3 cases involved skin splashes due to 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF), the others on the eye or on the skin, generally involved a mix of HF/HNO3 at pH = 1. In all cases, rinsing with Hexafluorine® stopped the appearance of any after-effects. In more than 70% of the cases, including 2 cases of 70% HF splashes, no secondary care was necessary. The loss of work never exceeded 3 days and for half of the cases no loss of work was necessary.
Effectiveness of Hexafluorine® for emergency decontamination of hydrofluoric acid eye and skin splashes Author(s): Mathieu L, Nehles J, Hall AH, Blomet J
Date: 2000
Source: Semiconductor Safety Association Meeting, April 2000, Arlington, United States ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION IN VET HUMAN TOXICOL,
11 cases of eye or skin splashes due to 40% HF or the mix 5% HF/15% HNO3 were effectively decontaminated with Hexafluorine® in a German company between 1994 and 1998. There were 5 cases of splashes due to 40% HF, and one of them involved both eyes and skin, and a body surface larger than 16%. Neither secondary care, nor losses of work were necessary for any of the splashes rinsed with Hexafluorine®. No after-effects were observed.
Hexafluorine® for emergency decontamination of hydrofluoric acid eye/ skin splashes [L’Hexafluorine® pour une décontamination d’urgence des projections oculaires ou cutanées d’acide fluorhydrique]. Author(s): Hall AH, Blomet J, Gross M, Nehles J
Date: 1999
Source: publi SSA 99.pdf,
Five cases of hydrofluoric acid splashes, (one concerning a complete immersion in a bath containing hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid) were effectively rinsed with Hexafluorine®. There were no deleterious after-effects. An experimental study on animals also presents results regarding the comparison of washing with water followed by a calcium gluconate application, and with Hexafluorine® on a 70% HF burn.
Preliminary results about the use of first aid rinsing solutions Previn® (Diphoterine®) and Hexafluorine® in cases of chemical splashes in a company [Résultats préliminaires de l’utilisation de solutions de lavage d’urgence Previn® (Diphotérine®) et Hexafluorine® lors de projections chimiques dans une entreprise] Author(s): Mathieu L, Blomet J, Nehles J, Dupont V
Date: 1999
Source: SFUM Congress (French-Speaking Society of Emergency Medecine), STC (Clinical Toxicology Society), April 1999, Marseille, France,
In the 36 cases of chemical splashes rinsed with Previn® or Hexafluorine®, no after-effects occurred and no secondary care was necessary.
Hexafluorine® for emergency decontamination of hydrofluoric acid eye/skin splashes Author(s): Hall AH, Blomet J, Gross M, Nehles J
Date: 1999
Source: Semiconductor Safety Association Meeting, March 1999, San Diego, United States,
Five cases of hydrofluoric acid splashes are presented. Hexafluorine® is currently an effective alternative for the decontamination of eye and skin hydrofluoric acid splashes.
A review of two hydrofluoric acid burns Author(s): Siewé C, Nehles J, Blomet J, Gross M ,
Date: 1998
Source: European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, March 1998, Zurich, Switzerland,
Following an ocular and facial skin splash, due to 40% hydrofluoric acid, a worker from the Mannesman company was rinsed with Hexafluorine®. The specialists established the absence of lesions and the worker was back at work the next day. A worker from the Krupp company was splashed with 38% hydrofluoric acid in the eye, and rinsed his eye with Hexafluorine®. He did not experience any after-effects, and was back at work the next day.
Treatment of a facial and ocular burn due to 40% hydrofluoric acid [Traitement d’une brûlure d’acide fluorhydrique à 40% sur le visage et les yeux] Author(s): Nehles, J
Date: 1997
Source: 1st International Congress on Knowledge Assessment of Chemical Burns, October 1997, La Baule, France,
Following an ocular and facial splash, due to hydrofluoric acid, a worker from the Mannesman company was rinsed with Hexafluorine®. The specialists established the absence of lesions and the worker was back at work the next day.
Comparative Experimental Decontamination of Concentrated Hydrofluoric Acid in New Ex Vivo Human Eye and Skin Models Author(s): Schrage N,
Date: DECEMBER 2009
Source: AIOH, Canberra, Australia, December 2009,
This presentation reviews the knowledge acquired on HF burns, concerning the eyes (with model EVEIT), as well as the skin (with the explant model of human skin at BIO-EC laboratory). HF 2.5% reached the epithelium in 4 minutes. The skin is reached within the 1st minute with HF 70% on the human explant model, and the dermis is completely penetrated in 5 minutes. The comparative studies of decontamination undertaken on these models show the advantage of the use of Hexafluorine® which preserves tissue, compared to water and/or gluconate of calcium.